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John D Salt
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The petard has to be counterbalanced by the POW impression, that a none penetrating hit on a concrete position, reverberated through the structure and would feel to those inside as if it was about to collapse, even if it wasn’t.

What is the quote, ‘Morale is to the physical as 3 is to 1.’

I suspect the same can be said of rockets.

Indeed the OR folks themselves mention this on numerous occasions. Not only does rocket attack have a strong intimidating effect on the enemy, it is a considerable encouragement to friendly troops who witness it. It may not be entirely clear from my necessarily abbreviated account in https://www.thewargameswebsite.com/forums/topic/75-years-ago-today/ but when X Troop, 47 (RM) Commando attacked the weapon pits south of Port-en-Bessin with fixed bayonets after a Typhoon rocket attack, they successfully captured the obective — consisting of concrete emplacements — apparently without loss on either side, and without the defenders even opening fire, despite being plentifully supplied with ammunition.

Generally, I reckon low-level air attack, multiple rockets, and the use of flame weapons have effects on morale greater than their destructive power would otherwise warrant. Very heavy HE may have a similar effect; Gunner Milligan mentions the impression the heavy rounds of his regiment’s 7.2-inchers was reported to have on the Germans, and a Petard mortar bomb, despite being lighter, holds the same amount of HE.

All the best,

John.