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Ah!  Thank you; very helpful.  So there was normally something of a military national flag as well as a national flag, although the military national flag might have embellishments to differentiate individual units.  The website is very useful in looking at those differences across the nations.  Is there any clarity on what point the military flag was replaced with the national flag?  Does a garrison town fly a military flag or the national flag?  The best example of that seems to be Russia, where presumably at some point a military flag would give way to the tricolour white-blue-red national flag, something quite distinct.  Which also raises again the issue of the Portuguese national flag: was it a monarchical crest and if so, which monarch and with what background, red or white?