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#88865
General Slade
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I think it was first done in 1822 as part of a cost-cutting exercise when every battalion, except those serving in India, was reduced from ten to eight companies.  See Fortescue’s A History of the British Army Volume XI (1815-38) for details: A History of the British Army Volume XI (1815-38)

However, it changed again in 1825 and for a while there were six field companies and four depot companies.  It had changed again by the time of the Crimean War when there were eight companies per battalion but I’m not sure when this became the standard organisation.